It is the branch of Dentistry that deals with periodontal diseases, that is, those that affect the tissues around the tooth. They are infectious diseases produced by bacteria, even though there are predisposing factors: heredity, lack of hygiene, smoking, bad positions and mechanical factors in chewing.
There are two major groups of periodontal diseases. If only the gum is affected, causing a reversible inflammatory process, it is called gingivitis. The initial symptom is redness and bleeding.
If gingivitis continues for a long time along with other factors , periodontitis (commonly, even incorrectly, called “pyorrhea”) begins, in which, in addition to the aforementioned gum inflammation, destruction occurs deeper that affects the other tissues of the periodontium, that is, the alveolar bone, the tooth cementum and the periodontal ligament. This destruction is, in addition, irreversible, and favors the progression of the disease, by creating a space under the gum we call a periodontal pocket, in which tartar and more bacteria increasingly accumulate causing more infection and endangering the survival of the teeth. Its most common symptoms are bleeding, mobility and suppuration (the presence of pus).
Periodontics is therefore that part of dentistry that studies and treats periodontal diseases, eliminating infection, tartar and bags, securing the teeth and preventing the loss of more dental support tissues. .